Climate data

Climatological data refer to weather information recorded over time from ground-based networks, satellites, ocean buoys, aircraft and other sources that measure various parameters such as temperature, humidity, precipitation, atmospheric pressure, wind and other quantities. Once collected, they are stored in databases for analysis by climatologists and experts in various fields.
Based on the time series of observations from different monitoring networks, statistical values of the main meteoclimatic variables are calculated and represented in the form of tables, graphs and maps.

Another source of data that allows climate studies to be carried out is that provided by “reanalyses,” made through the combined use of both observed data and weather forecast models, used, however, not for forecasting into the future (forecast) but for reconstructing past climate (hindcast).

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has set the length of the reference period at 30 years and established uniform methodologies for subjecting data series to validity checks.

Climatological data are critically important for several reasons:
• Understanding climate: they provide detailed information on climate variations and trends over time, allowing a better understanding of how climate works
• Monitoring climate change: they enable assessment of global and local climate change and the impact of human activities on climate
 Promote scientific research: they are essential for conducting scientific research on the environment, climate and its interactions with other natural systems
• Support planning: they are essential in the management of water resources and renewable energy, urban planning, and the agricultural sector
• Guide mitigation and adaptation policies: they provide crucial information for public policy as well as for the development of sustainability strategies at local, national and international levels.